Training is A managed process of individual learning which is focused on developing specialized knowledge needed to meet local organizational unit needs Source: Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation
Achieving competency is generally a two-step process: both education and training is needed, although the weight of these two components may vary. Education is a knowledge-driven process which occurs mainly in accredited academic institutions, whereas training is an application-driven process occuring either on the site of the work, or in specialized training centers. Education aims creating, maintaining and transmitting knowledge - mostly basic and general knowledge, which can be used in many fields. On the other hand, training is mainly oriented to acquire specialised knowledge and skills which are necessary to perform a specific job.
Training is essentially an application-driven process where the customers are industry employees, and the providers are either some specialized staff on the site of work, or specialized training organizations. In order to perform training in an organized and quality assured manner the IAEA recommends the use of the Systematic approach to training method.
- A systematic approach to training (SAT) is implemented to achieve, maintain, and improve personnel knowledge, skill, and performance to support plant safety and performance goals. For more than 15 years the IAEA has been encouraging NPP operating organizations to implement SAT-based training programmes. In many Member States, SAT-based training is the accepted standard for training of NPP personnel. Appendix IV provides an example of one NPP’s training records and information network and Appendix XVIII describes another NPP’s training programme for newly-hired personnel. Appendix XXV describes China’s national nuclear education initiative. References [11, 12 and 13] are some of the IAEA publications regarding SAT-based training. The bibliography provides a comprehensive listing of IAEA publications related to this topic.
- Continuing training ensures that the personnel maintains their job-specific knowledge and skills. It is recommended that the specific knowledge and skills of the personnel should be verified and updated periodically. This period should be shorter for those whose work is more critical for safety (for example reactor operators).
- Training materials and examinations should be current, accurate, and of high quality. Reference  provides examples of methods used by some NPP operating organizations to develop high quality, SAT-based training materials. An IAEA TECDOC on the development and use of competency-based tests for nuclear industry personnel has been published.
- Contractor personnel involved in plant activities and assigned to work independently perform to the same standards as the plant staff and are verified to have the specialized skills and training appropriate to the tasks they perform. Responsibilities are established for oversight of contractor personnel who work independently. Reference  provides examples of methods that NPP operating organizations in Member States have used to address this need.
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants Safety Guide, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-2.8, IAEA, Vienna (2002).
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation A Guidebook, IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 380, IAEA, Vienna (1996).
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Experience in the Use of Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, IAEA-TECDOC-1057, IAEA, Vienna (1998).
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Use of Control Room Simulators for Training of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, IAEA-TECDOC-1411, IAEA, Vienna (2004).
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Managing Change in Nuclear Utilities, IAEA-TECDOC-1226, IAEA, Vienna (2001).