Fraunhofer reference model
Fraunhofer reference model is A specific KM system model
In order to more fully appreciate KM’s pervasive nature and importance to an organization, it is useful to make reference to an overview model. The Fraunhofer Reference Model for knowledge management presented in Fig. 3 has been recognized as one of the few holistic KM frameworks for standardization in Europe. The model is a three-layer schema that depicts the relationships between value-adding business processes, four knowledge management core processes, and six design fields of knowledge management.
 KEMP, J., et al. KM Framework. Research paper of the European KM Forum (IST Project no 2000-26393) and WEBER, F., et al. Towards Common Approaches and Standards for Knowledge Management in Europe. (Forthcoming). Commentary reported by MERTINS, K., et al [Knowledge Management: Concepts and Best Practices. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. (2003).] on the model depicted in Fig. 3 [copyright: Fraunhofer IPK in 2003.]
 SANTOSUS, MEGAN, and SURMACZ, The ABCs of Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Research Center, accessed on 09 December 2005 at http://www.cio.com/research/knowledge/edit/kmabcs.html.
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Management System for Facilities and Activities, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3, IAEA, Vienna (2006).