Learning model

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A model on learning


Numerous learning models exist to describe different important aspects of Knowledge management particularly with respect to knowledge transfer and Education and Organizational learning

Learning models

Kolb's learning cycle

David A. Kolb's model is based on the Experiential learning Theory, as explained in his book Experiential Learning.[1] The ELT model outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. According to Kolb's model, the ideal learning process engages all four of these modes in response to situational demands. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles

  • Concrete experience
  • Abstract conceptualization
  • Reflective observation and
  • Active experimentation

Nonaka's knowledge conversion spiral

The SECI model is also relevant for learning.

  • Socialization
  • Externalization
  • Internalization
  • Combination

Argyris double loop learning

For Argyris and Schön (1978: 2) learning involves the detection and correction of error. Where something goes wrong, it is suggested, an initial port of call for many people is to look for another strategy that will address and work within the governing variables. In other words, given or chosen goals, values, plans and rules are operationalized rather than questioned. According to Argyris and Schön (1974), this is single-loop learning. An alternative response is to question to governing variables themselves, to subject them to critical scrutiny. This they describe as double-loop learning. Such learning may then lead to an alteration in the governing variables and, thus, a shift in the way in which strategies and consequences are framed. Thus, when they came to explore the nature of organizational learning [2]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_loop_learning

Organisational learning

Organizational learning is the process of creating, retaining, and transferring knowledge within an organization. An organization improves over time as it gains experience. From this experience, it is able to create knowledge. This knowledge is broad, covering any topic that could better an organization. Examples may include ways to increase production efficiency or to develop beneficial investor relations. Knowledge is created at four different units: individual, group, organizational, and inter-organizational. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_learning

Senge's Organisational learning

Peter Senge stated in an interview that a Learning organizationis a group of people working together collectively to enhance their capacities to create results they really care about.[12] Senge popularized the concept of the learning organization through his book The Fifth Discipline. In the book, he proposed the following five disciplines:[13]

Systems thinking: Organizations are a system of interrelationships. To become more successful we need to analyze these relationships and find the problems in them. This will allow an organization to eliminate the obstacles to learning Personal mastery: An individual holds great importance in a learning organization. Continuous self-improvement holds as much importance as commitment and work for the organization. Employees need to grow and work on their own goals. Mental models: This is the company culture and the diverse theories and mindsets that serve as a framework for the functioning of the organization. Learning organizations look for how these affect organizational development. Shared vision: A learning organization's employees all share a common vision. Personal goals must be in sync with the goals and vision of the organization. Team learning: The importance of dialogue and group discussion. For a team to learn, they must be in sync and reach agreement. * Systems thinking

  • Personal mastery
  • Mental models
  • Shared vision
  • Team learning

Team learning


  • Public reflection
  • Shared meaning
  • Coordinated action
  • Joint planning

Schools of thought on learning (education)

There are a number of models which are commonly used to describe learning. The models emphasise different elements of a human and organizational learning.

It is important to note that the terms used in this article are not always consistent with those used elsewhere in the wiki

The main schools of thought on learning can be organised thus:

  • Behaviorism
  • Humanism
  • Constructivism
  • Cognitivism
  • Social cognitivism


Key concepts

  • Environment
  • Reinforcement


Key concepts

  • Self directed learning
  • Self actualisation
  • Learning as a social process
  • Transformative learning


Jonassen, D.H. (1999). Designing Constructivist Learning Environments. In, Reigeluth, C.M. (Ed.), Instuctional Design Theories and Models, Vol. 2, lawrence Erlbaum.

Key concepts

  • Exploration
  • Meaning
  • Learning outcomes depend not only on the learning environment but also on the knowledge of the learner.
  • Learning involves the construction of meanings. Meanings constructed by students from what they see or hear may not be those intended. Construction of a meaning is influenced to a large extent by our existing knowledge.
  • The construction of meaning is a continuous and active process.
  • Meanings, once constructed, are evaluated and can be accepted or rejected.
  • Learners have the final responsibility for their learning.
  • There are patterns in the types of meanings students construct due to shared experiences with the physical world and through natural language.

Ref: Driver, R. & R. Bell. (1986). Students’ Thinking and the Learning of Science: A Constructivist View. School Science Review 67, 240.


Key concepts

  • learning how to learn
  • Memory
  • Emotion

Social cognitivism

Key concepts

  • Modelling
  • Social learning


[1] Kolb, David (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-295261-0.

[2] Smith, M. K. (2001, 2013). ‘Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning’, the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved: 19/01/2015