Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations - document as published

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There are five main characteristics that have to be considered when managing nuclear knowledge:

  • Complexity — nuclear knowledge is highly complex on both the micro and macro- scale. The physical, chemical, radiological and biological interactions of materials as well as the sociological, economic, political and security aspects must all be considered as a whole.
  • Cost — largely due to its complexity, the creation of nuclear knowledge is quite costly. Nuclear facility construction and operation are often large, complex engineering projects requiring sophisticated safety systems and specialist staff.
  • Timescale — the time period between the creation of knowledge and its use can be very long. For example, the time between radioactive waste being created and its disposal could be many decades. During this time, the information, the capability to access, interpret and understand it, must to be maintained.
  • Cooperation — many individuals, organizations and Member States have legitimate cause for both contributing to and accessing the nuclear knowledge base. The information and data used and the experiences, skills and insights applied must be carefully monitored to guarantee robustness.
  • Education — is essential if people are to acquire the experiences and insights needed to create new knowledge and apply it to emerging challenges.

The industrial infrastructure required to create and maintain the full scope of nuclear knowledge can represent a significant economic and technical burden for many Member States. This infrastructure includes research and development (R&D) and technical support organizations, laboratories to handle a wide variety of nuclear materials, research and power reactors, hot cells, reprocessing plants, demonstration facilities and disposal sites. These have to be supported by skilled operators, health physicists, regulatory and licensing bodies, quality and financial controllers. In recent years, the cost of maintaining such an infrastructure has risen. Willingness to share nuclear knowledge means more Member States, particularly in developing regions, are likely to have access to life-changing technology without the crippling burden of infrastructure costs. Effective management of nuclear facilities requires suitably qualified personnel. An important element of human resource management is the management of knowledge — the knowledge that individuals need as part of the competence requirements for assigned tasks and the additional knowledge they acquire in carrying out those tasks. This knowledge will be needed by several generations of the workforce during the lifetime of the nuclear energy programme. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, the number of suitably qualified and experienced staff will decline and the knowledge they possess may be lost. Action is being taken to address this with the development of higher education programmes that focus, specifically, on nuclear technology and its application. However, many of these programmes are still in their infancy, and rely on concerted government and academic support — and both bodies are under constant pressure to demonstrate that they make best use of public funding. In some case it could take decades of support before the benefits are realised and, in the meantime, nuclear safety and security may be at risk. Furthermore, innovation will be compromised. Specialist knowledge is needed to apply nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture, industry, disease prevention, water management, electricity production and mineral exploration. If the knowledge accumulated to date is lost, applications will stall and many generations could have a less secure and sustainable future. These factors have led to the need for effective strategies and policies for knowledge management (KM) [1].

During the initial stages of implementing a KM programme, the IAEA focused its attention primarily on the implementation of nuclear knowledge management (NKM) at operating nuclear power plants (NPP). As awareness of the value of the NKM methods and tools became more widespread, the IAEA received additional requests to consider a broader application in other types of nuclear operating organization. One such area identified for attention was the specific application in nuclear R&D organizations. This publication is written to support this aim.


The purpose of the publication is to provide assistance to decision makers from nuclear R&D organizations on planning, implementing and sustaining knowledge management programmes to derive organizational benefit. It uses existing IAEA nuclear KM concepts and publicationation and extends the applicability to a range of activities currently undertaken by nuclear R&D organizations.


The scope of this publication is intended to cover a range of activities undertaken in different types of nuclear R&D organization as defined in Section 4. It considers many aspects of KM and has specific guidance relevant to the following topic areas:

  • Measuring KM maturity in R&D organizations;
  • Identification of critical knowledge;
  • Collaboration strategies;
  • Explicit and tacit knowledge capture;
  • IT tools and techniques;
  • Links with the quality management system;
  • Guidelines for successful implementation;
  • IAEA guidance and assistance in the establishment and maturity assessment of an NKM programme.

It is not within the scope of this publication to cover every aspect of KM (particularly all possible methods, tools and techniques) or to repeat information that can be found in existing IAEA publications on the subject. As appropriate, references to such documentation will be made throughout the various sections of the publication in the context of applicability to nuclear R&D organizations.

Organizational context

There are many different types of nuclear R&D organization operating worldwide. Some are financed by government and others operate on a self-funded basis or are privately owned. For the purposes of this publication, the IAEA have identified the following seven different types of activities/functions undertaken by R&D organizations:

  1. Basic research functions: Basic research or fundamental research (sometimes called pure research) is research carried out to increase understanding of fundamental principles. In many cases the end results have no direct or immediate commercial benefits. Basic research can be thought of as arising out of curiosity. In nuclear R&D organizations such research may include research into the properties of radioactive materials e.g. isotope analysis, transmutation, radioactive decay, neutron absorption/scattering etc. It may also include research into non-radioactive materials and related areas of science such as corrosion, fluid flow, heat transfer and acoustics etc. The output of such research is invariably a technical paper that supports a new theory or validates exiting concepts and models.
  2. Applied research functions: Applied research is research accessing and using existing theories, knowledge, methods and techniques for a specific government, commercial or client driven purpose. In nuclear R&D organizations such research is often required to support nuclear safety cases or efficient operation of nuclear facilities. As with basic research, applied research may involve both radioactive and non-radioactive materials and can include a range of scientific disciplines. The output from an applied research organization is a technical solution, design or product that may or may not be supported by a technical paper or report.
  3. Design R&D functions: In the context of this report, design R&D is concerned with undertaking research and development activities which directly supports the design of nuclear facilities or equipment. It includes radioactive and non-radioactive materials research and development. In simple terms, design R&D organizations can be considered to be a special sub-set of applied research organizations as defined above.
  4. Functions utilizing nuclear R&D facilities: This typically represents the situation where a nuclear R&D organization runs a research reactor or similar facility utilizing ionizing radiation. In addition to research reactors, experimental equipment may include devices such as particle accelerators, X ray machines and devices requiring radiation sources. This type of organization is usually characterized by the need for external regulation and the presence of an on-site radiation protection advisor (RPA). The purpose of such an organization can be to deliver pure or applied research as described above.
  5. Functions utilizing non-nuclear R&D facilities: This case represents a nuclear R&D organization that operates equipment used for research and development that does not utilize ionizing radiation. This may include apparatus needed for metallurgy, heat transfer, and chemistry experiments etc. that are required to support nuclear applications or facilities. Again, as with nuclear R&D facilities, the purpose of such an organization can be to deliver both pure and applied research.
  6. Educational R&D functions: Educational R&D organizations represent a special type of organization with the principal role of educating students and other learners in nuclear technology. Such organizations typically utilize research reactors and other nuclear equipment as described above to facilitate the learning process. Both pure and applied research projects are often used to support learning.
  7. Technical support and services functions: These organizations directly support client organizations that operate nuclear facilities. This support may take many forms, including any of the R&D functions described above.

In practice most R&D organizations operate in a number of different modes offering capabilities covering all or most of the functions described above. This is important from a KM point of view as the business issues facing R&D organizations are often different depending on the organizational function and structure.

How knowledge management can benefit nuclear R&D organizations

It is important to understand what KM is and how it can help R&D organizations. Definitions and practical examples of the application of KM can be found in several IAEA publications:

  • Knowledge Management for Nuclear Industry Operating Organizations, IAEA- TECDOC-1510 (see Ref. [1]);
  • Risk Management of Knowledge Loss in Nuclear Industry Organizations [2];
  • Managing Nuclear Knowledge [3];
  • Managing Nuclear Knowledge: Strategies and Human Resource Development [4];
  • Planning and Execution of Knowledge Management Assist Missions for Nuclear Organizations, IAEA-TECDOC-1586 [5];
  • Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Knowledge Preservation [6];
  • Status and Trends in Nuclear Education [7].

Although the above references are mainly aimed towards KM in nuclear power plants, there are a number of related areas that are applicable to nuclear R&D organizations. It should be recognized, however, that nuclear R&D organizations also have some special features and issues that require a different KM approach. A description of some of these issues, particularly relevant to nuclear R&D organizations and the benefits that can be realized is given in paras 5.1–5.8. Each section considers the type of R&D organization that is applicable and the KM tools and techniques that should be considered for application/improvement.

Mitigating singleton reliance

Nuclear R&D organizations rely to a great extent on competent personnel who are specialists in their field. A high proportion of staff are regarded as technical experts, and many have no back-up or immediate successor, i.e. they are regarded as ‘singletons’. This is a significant issue for all types of nuclear R&D organization. The situation is often exacerbated by ageing staff, lack of funding and cost cutting strategies which often puts pressure on the recruitment and handover processes. Although succession planning processes do exist in a number of R&D organizations, a widespread adoption of KM techniques that can be deployed to address the singleton issue are not widely observed. This is a key area where KM can provide benefit.

  1. Applicable organizational functions: All types of R&D organization.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
    • Identification of critical knowledge;
    • Knowledge loss risk assessment;
    • Succession planning;
    • Tacit knowledge capture;
    • Explicit knowledge search/find;
    • IT tools to facilitate the techniques above.

Improving innovation

The ability to innovate is a common element associated with all types of R&D organization and sets R&D organizations apart from other nuclear organizations such as operating NPPs. Innovation can be regarded as comprising three main components: new-use of existing knowledge, creation of new ideas, and exploitation of those ideas to create value for the organization. Innovation requires a holistic approach to problem solving and the ability to link separate concepts together to produce a new result. The process can be carried out by individuals but faster, better results are usually achieved by teamwork and group collaboration. Social interaction is therefore a key success factor for innovation and KM tools and techniques can play an important role in improving innovation potential.

  1. Applicable organizational functions: All types of R&D organization.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
    • Communities of practice (CoP);
    • Knowledge base systems;
    • Explicit knowledge search/find;
    • Collaboration and social networking tools;
    • Rapid evidence reviews;
    • Peer assist;
    • Knowledge café.

Developing collaboration relationships and partnerships

Nuclear R&D organizations are becoming increasingly involved in the development of international strategic alliances that require the sharing of research staff and their knowledge in international networks of excellence. This aspect applies to all types of R&D organization and is more prevalent in those organizations that are state or publicly funded. Such collaboration and partnership between R&D institutes, government, universities and industry require a flexible approach and this process can be facilitated by the introduction of various KM tools and techniques as described in Section 6. The overall benefits of this approach can be realized in terms of efficiency (cost) savings and reputation in adopting new and innovative solutions as described in para 5.2.

  1. Applicable organizational functions: All types of R&D organization.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
    • Communities of practice;
    • Collaboration and social networking tools;
    • Rapid evidence reviews;
    • Peer assist;
    • Knowledge café;
    • Knowledge marketplace.

Making the best use of available funds

Most R&D organizations have experienced cutbacks in funding or have been required to make reductions in expenditure. Adoption of good KM practices is unlikely to lead to increased funding options from sponsors but can lead to increased efficiency and possible cost savings. This ensures that all funding is correctly assigned and the maximum benefit is derived with the limited funds available. To realize these savings it is necessary to fully understand the benefits that KM tools and techniques can bring and to run KM projects with this end goal in mind. More information on identifying viable KM projects and the processes for successful implementation can be found in Section 7.

  1. Applicable organizational functions: All types of R&D organization.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:

All — but with a targeted approach to address areas of inefficiency.

Maintaining and developing staff competence

Utilizing explicit and tacit knowledge is an essential ingredient for a nuclear R&D organization, but employing staff with the correct level of competence is likely to be a more important success factor. Laboratory managers, subject matter experts (SME) and senior laboratory technicians for example, may have lots of knowledge but is it the right knowledge?

In addition do they have the correct attitudes and skills? Maintaining and developing staff competence is a very important aspect in any nuclear R&D organization. There are some useful tools and techniques that can be utilized to maintain and develop competence. The most important of these are given in the list below and these augment the various types of standard education and training which is the typical route to maintain and develop competence.

  1. Applicable organizational functions: All types of R&D organization.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
    • Competency frameworks;
    • Skills/competency management database tools;
    • Identification of critical knowledge;
    • Knowledge loss risk assessment;
    • Succession planning;
    • Communities of practice;
    • Collaboration and social networking tools;
    • Rapid evidence reviews;
    • Peer assist;
    • Knowledge café;
    • Knowledge marketplace.

Protecting intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is an intangible asset that has commercial value. In nuclear R&D organizations the development of IP is a key deliverable of the organization and as such should be protected. As well as physical assets such as designs, inventions, software etc. ‘employee know-how’ is also regarded as IP. In fact the value of employee know-how in many R&D organizations far outweighs the value of physical assets. Protecting all kinds of IP involves:

  • Taking an inventory of existing IP;
  • Assessing IP value;
  • Implementing controls on high value items and then integrating these controls into the management system.

Taking an inventory of ‘employee know-how’ is essentially the same task as identifying critical knowledge in the organization, hence there is an obvious linkage here with the KM tools and techniques described in Section 6 of this publication.

  1. Applicable organizational functions; All types of R&D organization, but with particular relevance to:
    • Applied research functions;
    • Design R&D functions;
    • Technical support & services functions.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
    • Identification of critical knowledge;
    • Knowledge loss risk assessment;
    • Succession planning;
    • Tacit knowledge capture;
    • Explicit knowledge search/find;
    • IT tools to facilitate the techniques above.

Delivery of nuclear education

Delivery of nuclear education is important in R&D organizations whose principal function involves teaching and the supply of qualified students to the nuclear industry where recent trends indicate a growing demand. Successful delivery of educational and training programmes requires a transfer of knowledge (see Ref. [6]). A multi-strand approach is needed and the tools used to facilitate education and training closely align with the tools used for successful KM delivery. This relationship is becoming more apparent given recent developments to deliver nuclear training courses ‘on-line’ in a virtual classroom environment. The IAEA itself is involved in this process and has contributed through programmes such as the World Nuclear University (WNU) and Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT). A number of techniques used in KM are relevant here and are provided in the flowing list.

  1. Applicable organizational functions: Educational R&D organizations.
  2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
    • Explicit knowledge search/find;
    • IT tools such as portals and collaboration tools.

Compliance with nuclear legislative requirements

R&D organizations operating research reactors and related facilties need to comply with nuclear legislative requirements similar to those applicable to NPPs. The detailed legislative requirements vary from countrty to country but there are some common aspects that must be addressed. These aspects are related to KM and include:

  • Mainitaining/demonstrating competency of staff;
  • Provision of education and training;
  • Organizational design and management of change considerations;
  • Document and record management.
    1. Applicable organizational functions — organizations utilizing nuclear R&D facilities;
    2. Related KM tools/techniques to consider:
  • Competency frameworks;
  • Skills/competency management database tools;
  • Identification of critical knowledge;
  • Knowledge loss risk assessment;
  • Succession planning;
  • Explicit knowledge search/find;
  • IT tools such as document/content management systems, portals and collaboration tools.

KM tools and techniques for R&D organizations

The purpose of this section is to provide a brief outline of the KM tools and techniques that nuclear R&D organizations should consider to help deliver business benefit to the organization. This is not an exhaustive list, nor is it possible in this section to provide a comprehensive guide on applicability and usage. Where information exists within other IAEA publications this is referenced as appropriate. In addition, a set of definitions of NKM terminology is included in the Annex to the publication.

KM analysis tools

KM maturity self-assessment

Self-assessments are used to help determine the current KM capability in an organization and to assist in identifying KM areas for future improvement. The IAEA has produced a self- assessment questionnaire and Excel spreadsheet specifically for nuclear R&D organizations that can be used to facilitate the process. This is currently not available in existing IAEA publications but a copy of the self-assessment questionnaire is available in Appendix of this publication. The self-assessment questionnaire is best used in a group or workshop environment and can be completed by collecting responses from a number of people who are knowledgeable with regards to the organization’s activities and future goals.

Knowledge loss risk assessment

Knowledge loss risk assessment is the process used to determine the potential business impact of the loss of critical knowledge from an organization. The process for attrition based risk assessment is described in Ref. [3]. The process uses a risk assessment matrix, which focuses on two key parameters:

  • Position risk (i.e. based on the unique/critical knowledge and skills possessed by the employee and an estimate of the difficulty or level of effort required to refill the position);
  • Attrition risk (i.e. based on the expected retirement or other attrition date of an employee).

Based on the combination of the two above factors, a total knowledge loss risk factor can be derived for each individual in the organization. A knowledge loss risk assessment is a useful starting point for establishing the priorities by which key individuals in an organization can be targeted for knowledge elicitation/harvesting or other mitigation actions. Currently the IAEA documentation considers only knowledge loss due to attrition (staff that leaves due to retirement, transfer or termination) but the methodology is readily extended to address other situations.

Identification of critical knowledge

Identification of critical knowledge is an exercise that every organization should carry out to help identify those individuals who are critical to its continued success. Generally it is carried out as part of a knowledge loss risk assessment as described in para 6.1.2. The process in the IAEA is well documented and has been used or demonstrated at a number of NPPs worldwide. The reference [3] describes the process, gives guidance for mangers and describes the interview process to confirm that an individual’s knowledge is indeed critical to the organization’s activities.

Rapid evidence review

A rapid evidence review (RER) provides R&D organizations with a way of quickly reviewing research and development evidence on a particular subject and consolidating knowledge at the beginning of a new project or study. It is a collaborative approach that looks at what has already been done in a particular research domain and captures the main issues, results, methods and outcomes. The RER provides a quick and useful way of gathering and consolidating knowledge and is a useful building block from which to start work on a new project. It should not be considered a definitive review, but rather the most suitable given the time and resources available.

Any new piece of work is likely to draw on what has already been done by others in the domain. An RER ensures that an organization can take account of this work before starting a project, thus avoiding duplication of effort, giving a firm foundation on which to build the project or activity. In practice, an RER can be executed and completed in a number of different ways. A fully- developed review will search available literature as comprehensively as possible, using electronic databases, the internet and other information sources such as books, research papers, and training courses etc., both inside and outside the organization. Group techniques are also used with experts to gather information on the topic of interest. The output from an RER is usually a report or document that summarises the main findings and outcomes from the desk based research and discussions with the experts.

Knowledge capture techniques

R&D organizations have many experts who have tacit knowledge and this is usually the most important resource of the organization and a resource that it very difficult to measure. Many of the benefits described in Section 5 of this publication are realized through the capture, dissemination and re-use of this knowledge. The techniques used to extract tacit knowledge are therefore of key significance to R&D organizations and are described in the sections that follow.

Interview techniques

Interviews are important in helping to understand and capture knowledge associated with an expert’s role. Interviews are not the best method of capturing tacit knowledge or validating knowledge but they provide an important starting point to allow other techniques to be used later. There are three main types of interview technique:

  • Unstructured interviews have an outline agenda but no pre-defined questions or structure;
  • Semi-structured interviews (the most commonly used) have a structured agenda with the flexibility to ask additional questions following an answer;
  • Structured interviews; these allow no flexibility; all questions are established in advance.

Interviews can be combined with workshops to establish need, purpose and commitment from a group of experts. Interviews are usually recorded. Audio recording is the usual method, which is then converted into a document transcript. The duration of interviews can be long (in total these can extend to several man-days duration) depending on the subject matter expert under review and the extent of knowledge to be captured. The interview requires a considerable amount of pre-planning and works well when a bespoke set of questions are pre-determined. Basic interviews can be combined with other specialist interview techniques such as the critical decision method (CDM), popular with the US military, which focuses on non-routine incidents and the decision making processes of the experts at the

Laddering and concept mapping

Laddering and concept mapping are diagrammatic ways of representing knowledge in a particular area or ‘knowledge domain’. Laddering uses a hierarchical approach to show relationships between concepts (see Fig. 1). A concept map is similar to a ladder. However, the layout usually starts from a central theme and shows concepts as nodes and the relationships between them as labelled arrows (see Fig. 2).

FIG. 1. Example concept ladder or tree.
FIG. 2. Example of concept map.

Addering and concept mapping techniques can be used with interview techniques to model knowledge. Alternatively experts can contribute directly to the production of the models. In this way, ladders and concept maps provide a better way of identifying and capturing tacit knowledge rather than interviews alone.

Process mapping

Processes are characterized by stages, actions or events, with each stage having inputs and outputs. Much tacit knowledge in the heads of experts is process knowledge and this is often gained from many years of experience working in an R&D environment. An example of process knowledge in an R&D context includes knowledge related to:

  • Establishing and prioritizing the need for research;
  • Methodologies in designing and operating experiments or tests;
  • Specialist calibration activities;
  • Logical deduction, such as root cause analysis.

Process knowledge is often found in narrative procedures but is usually better represented and understood by the construction of process maps or models. These can take many forms and are often found in support of business processes (see Fig. 3).

FIG. 3. Process map.

Process maps can be constructed directly with experts to help model process knowledge. As with concept maps, the input for process models can be generated via interviews with experts. Alternatively group techniques can be used to help provide the basis for the process model.


Observational techniques are another valuable means of capturing tacit knowledge. These techniques are particularly useful when trying to capture special skills (e.g. calibration techniques, equipment set-up and operation, specialist welding etc.). Simply observing and

making notes as the expert performs their daily activities can be useful, although this is a time- consuming process. Videotaping task performance can also be helpful, especially if combined with interviewing and other techniques. In general, simple observation techniques are rarely used, as they are an inefficient means of capturing the required knowledge.

Constrained tasks

The constrained task approach limits the choices an expert is given when capturing knowledge. This technique is often used to capture ‘key’ knowledge and tasks from the expert that otherwise wouldn’t be easily elicited by an interview. This can save time and can be an efficient use of the expert’s time. Examples include structured interviews, self-assessment questionnaires, quizzes and guessing games.

Concept sorting

Sorting techniques are a well-known method for capturing the way experts compare and order concepts. This can lead to the understanding of the knowledge about properties, tasks and relationships between concepts. A simple example is card sorting. Here the expert is given a number of cards each displaying the name of a concept. The expert has the task of repeatedly sorting the cards into piles such that the cards in each pile have something in common. Variants of this involve sorting objects or photographs rather than cards (used where simple textual descriptions are not easy to use). The facilitator gains insights by asking appropriate questions about the relationships between concepts. This method is highly effective in helping to harvest deep tacit knowledge.

Social interaction and knowledge sharing techniques

Communities of practice

Community of practice (CoP) is a network of people who work on similar processes or in similar disciplines, and who come together to develop and share their knowledge in that field for the benefit of both themselves and their organization. The original thoughts behind the concept of a CoP are generally attributed to E. Wenger, and the techniques and benefits are described in his book [8]. CoPs are generally self-organizing and usually emerge naturally but need management commitment to get started and continue working effectively. They typically exist from the recognition of a specific need or problem and are particularly important in realising benefits in R&D organizations through increased innovation and collaboration. A CoP provides an environment (face-to-face and/or virtual) to connect people and encourage the sharing of new ideas, developments and strategies. This environment encourages faster problem solving, cuts down on duplication of effort, and provides potentially unlimited access to expertise inside and outside the organization. Information technology now allows people to network, share and develop ideas entirely online. Virtual communities can thus help R&D organizations overcome the challenges of geographical boundaries.

Peer assist

Peer assist is a process in which an individual or team arranges a meeting or a workshop in order to make use of the knowledge and experience of other individuals or teams before embarking on a project or activity. In R&D organizations the peer assist process can help avoid situations such as ‘re-inventing the wheel’ and provides team members with valuable

knowledge and insights from other teams before embarking on a project or task. It therefore allows a valuable connection with those seeking assistance with a peer group who have expertise in a given area. A peer assist meeting can last from an hour to a full day depending on the size of the project or activity. Communicating with experienced peers about the best way to approach new projects saves R&D organizations time and money and avoids repetition of mistakes. It also helps to create strong team bonding, establishes rapport and fosters the development of relationships between people.

Knowledge marketplace

A knowledge marketplace can be regarded as a ‘dating service’ to assist in knowledge and competence transfer. The process begins by identifying what people currently know and what they would like to know on a particular topic and then connects them as appropriate. The knowledge marketplace process can be facilitated face-to-face, on-line or via email. It can be used in many situations, for example, when delegating roles and responsibilities within a new project team. Success of the process depends on the willingness of the participants to both contribute and benefit in equal measure from exchanging knowledge and information. It is also highly dependent on the degree of trust between individuals. In R&D organizations it can often be difficult to find people with the knowledge, skills and experience needed on a specific subject or process. Much useful, specialist knowledge remains untapped in many R&D organizations. The knowledge marketplace concept provides a means to discover and transfer this knowledge and make it available to others who need it. A knowledge marketplace can be run as follows within a participating team or group:

  1. Each person should first identify their knowledge requirements — these could be areas where they feel there are gaps in their knowledge or areas requiring additional learning/experience.
  2. Each person then identifies their knowledge to offer — these would be areas where they have knowledge, skills or experience to share with others.
  3. A facilitator collects some basic information to start the ‘connection and collection process’, for example: name, job title, department/group, email address, topic. This information can be recorded in a form, an Excel spreadsheet, by email, or on a flip chart during the session. This information is then used to connect people to people and the sharing process can begin.
  4. The sharing process could simply involve having a conversation or discussion with another person. Where external organizations are involved, it could be exchanging business cards with people who have knowledge or experience of benefit to you. Alternatively, the sharing could happen after the event has been recorded and the relationships mapped out and made available.

After action review

After action review (AAR) is a process used to capture and evaluate lessons learned. It takes the form of a quick and informal review and discussion at the end of a project or at a key stage within a project or other activity. It enable

  • Decide what action should be taken next in similar situations. The discussions should typically cover:
  • What happened and why;
  • What went well or better than expected;
  • What development issues occurred that require improvement;
  • What lessons can be learned from the experience for the next project.

In R&D organizations, much work results in the creation of new knowledge. By formalizing the way this knowledge is extracted and recorded, it can readily be made available to colleagues and other organizations facing similar challenges. AAR therefore provides a simple and quick way of making an informed decision about how to approach the next project or study.

Knowledge café

A knowledge café brings people together to have an open, creative discussion on topics of mutual interest. It can be organized in a meeting or workshop format, but the emphasis should be on flowing dialogue that allows people to share ideas and learn from each other. It encourages people to explore issues in a novel or original way generating new understanding and ideas that can be used constructively in an innovative R&D environment. It also helps people network and make connections for future work activities and collaboration. A knowledge café is run by a facilitator, who before the event considers the topic for discussion and invites appropriate participants to attend. During the knowledge café event, members arrange themselves in small groups and have an open exchange of ideas. It is normal for such discussions to last around 30–60 minutes. At the end of the group interaction, the facilitator asks each group in turn to summarize the main points of the discussion. Cross- fertilization of new ideas occurs and it is common practice for the facilitator to capture the key points raised and distribute the findings to all members at a later date.

IT tools

Document and content management systems

Document and content management systems have been used for many years to hold explicit knowledge in the form of documentation. Such systems are particularly important in R&D organizations to help maintain in electronic format items such as research papers, results of experiments, design information, component data, drawings and other data and information relating to the research centre and its operations. Most systems incorporate a workflow module that allows the circulation of documentation amongst users maintaining configuration control for document updates following check and approve cycles. Examples of the most frequently deployed systems include:

  • Documentum (;
  • Hummingbird (;
  • Microsoft SharePoint (;
  • FileNet (;
  • Livelink (

Explicit knowledge search/retrieval

All types of nuclear R&D organizations require personnel to be able to search for and have access to explicit knowledge. Search engines such as Google have made search and retrieval much easier for general users on the internet but many R&D organizations do not allow staff the same functionality within the organization. A simple search engine is often included in the document/content management systems described in para 6.4.1 above. More frequently third party search facilities are integrated with such systems that allow full text retrieval across multiple file types. At the higher end of the scale it is also possible to search for information using systems that understand meaning, sometimes called contextual search capability. Given the diverse and often unstuctured nature of information in an R&D environment, contextual search capability is an IT feature worth considering.

Knowledge base systems

A knowledge-based system is a computer system that is programmed to imitate human problem solving by means of artificial intelligence and reference to a database of knowledge on a particular subject. The purpose of a knowledge base system is to:

  • Allow knowledge to be stored and structured;
  • Provide an interface with other IT systems that contain knowledge;
  • Allow users to find and access knowledge;
  • Carry out decision making and problem solving activities to replicate human thought processes.

In an R&D setting, knowledge base systems can be used to:

  • Replace human intervention in some decision-making or trouble-shooting processes in a lab environment (examples include intelligent monitoring/fault diagnosis on large-scale equipment or experiments that require constant supervision);
  • Store/preserve knowledge from experts for reuse at a future date (used in conjunction with the knowledge capture techniques described in para 6.2);
  • Work faster than human processing for some activities that may require this (examples here include integration with reactor simulator systems to help model rapidly escalating transient situations);
  • Assimilate information and integrate with other IT systems such as search engines, document/content management systems, portals and social networking systems as described in Section 6.

Some examples of knowledge base systems are given below, together with the links to the relevant internet sites:

  • True knowledge ( An answer engine capable of answering questions put to it on any topic;
  • Solvatio ( A diagnostic tool, which combines case based reasoning and rules based reasoning together with a self-learning capability;
  • Novo ( Help Desk Software, Knowledge Base Software & Service Desk Software Solutions.


A portal is a comprehensive access structure to resources (web ‘super site’) that provides a single, often personalized interface point for accessing and consolidating information from disparate sources. The purpose of a portal is:

  • An integration tool — to provide easy, unified and integrated access to an organization’s own resources;
  • An access tool for other (internal and external) information resources;
  • A communication tool — to enable individuals, teams and ‘communities of practice’ to share and discuss ideas and knowledge.

In and R&D organization a portal offers many advantages:

  • Increases staff productivity (by reducing the time taken to access information and provide it in a more useful form.);
  • Providing management with powerful data management tools (for an effective overview of performance and activities);
  • More effective decision-making (based on access to needed knowledge);
  • Recognition of the value of knowledge (as a key element of human capital with significant commercial value).

For an R&D organization, content for a portal might be organized as shown below in Figure 4.

FIG. 4. Example portal content for an R&D organization.

The IAEA recognize that portals have an important and beneficial function in most nuclear organizations and have produced a guidance document that addresses the main development process [9]. Examples of software tools commonly used to develop portals include:

  • IBM: WebSphere Portal Server (;
  • Microsoft: Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (;
  • Oracle: WebLogic Portal (;
  • Oracle: WebCenter Suite (;
  • SAP: SAP NetWeaver Portal (;
  • Sun: Sun Java System Portal Server (;
  • Open Text:Vignette Portal (;
  • Broadvision: Broadvision Portal (

Collaboration and social networking tools

Enterprise social software, also known as Enterprise 2.0, is a term describing social software used in an enterprise (business) context. Examples of social software include Facebook, Myspace, Flickr, Wikipedia etc. and these systems are generally used by individuals outside the work environment. Figure 5 below shows the relationship between Web 2.0, the enabling technologies and the Enterprise 2.0 concepts and tools used for business.

FIG. 5. Enterprise 2.0 and social networking.

In an R&D setting it is possible to use adaptations of social networking tools to support knowledge sharing within the organization. The advantages that this brings include:

  • Improved collaboration — leading to increased knowledge sharing between individuals and teams;
  • Innovation — helps to break down silos an open up new connections between teams;
  • Productivity — opens up networks within the organization improving both the quantity and quality of work.

One of the best examples of an Enterprise 2.0 tool is a wiki. A wiki is a page or collection of web-pages designed to enable anyone with access rights to contribute or modify content using a simplified mark-up language. Specific benefits for R&D organizations include:

  • Allows easy capture and sharing of information;
  • No programming or software skills needed by the content provider (user);
  • Better and faster real time collaboration among employees;
  • Can cut down on email and the need to forward attachments;
  • Can reduce the need for meetings.

Currently, there are very few R&D organizations using Enterprise 2.0 tools but the numbers are expected to increase as the concept becomes more widespread and accepted in other business sectors.

Example vendors/products active in this market include:

  • Jive Software: Jive SBS (;
  • Awareness: Awareness Social Media Marketing platform (;
  • Socialtext: Socialtext Collaboration Platform (;
  • Microsoft: Sharepoint Server (;
  • IBM: Lotus Connections (;
  • Oracle: Oracle Web Centre Suite (

Skills/competency management systems

For nuclear R&D organizations, demonstrating staff competence to regulators and clients in a very important management practice. A related activity is the actual process of maintaining and enhancing competence throughout the entire organization. IT tools are available to help do this. The functionality of most systems available on the market allows:

  • The management of personnel data (name, address, job position, qualifications, certifications, experience etc.);
  • The construction of competency frameworks;
  • Allocation of competencies to roles;
  • Competence of individuals to be recorded;
  • Training requirements to be allocated and training records maintained;
  • Role and task information to be captured;
  • Gap analysis reporting

For R&D organizations, the advantages of implementation of such a system include:

  • Means of measuring and thus improving competence in a systematic manner;
  • Enables expert competencies to be identified and made available to others in the organization;
  • Tangible demonstration of staff competence to clients and regulators, thus assuring regulatory compliance in this area;
  • Enables cost effective planning of training across the organization;
  • Validity periods for refresher and update training are provided with automatic warnings of expiry;

Some examples of skills/competency systems are given below, together with the links to the relevant web-sites:

  • Tritaium: SkillsXP (;
  • Avilar: Web Mentor Skills (

A roadmap for successful implementation

Five stage implementation process

Like any other initiative within an organization, successful implementation of a KM project requires proactive management through a number of development stages. For KM projects, a five -stage process is applicable as depicted by Fig. 6 below. Each of the five stages is described in the paras that follow.

Stage 1 — Orientation

Orientation involves the understanding of basic KM concepts and the understanding of how KM can help drive change and increase organizational performance. The IAEA has done much to assist in this area and have produced significant reference material to help the initiation and education of managers and practitioners at all levels. In addition to the documentation listed in the References section of this publication, the IAEA has undertaken other initiatives to help with the understanding of KM concepts and the application of best practice. Such initiatives include:

  • School of Nuclear Knowledge Management (currently held every year in Trieste, Italy);
  • IAEA KM Assist Visits (these are described in more detail in Section 9 of this publication).

FIG. 6. Five stage KM implementation process.

It is extremely important that managers and sponsors understand what KM actually is, understand how benefits can be achieved and have a basic understanding of the techniques that can be used to facilitate improvement. Orientation may take several months to organize and deliver. A useful exercise at this stage is to benchmark the current KM maturity of the organization. The IAEA maturity tool discussed in Appendix provides a means of achieving this.

Stage 2 — Strategy formulization

During this stage the organization begins to make plans on how to utilize KM approaches to help deliver the intended improvements or change. A good starting point here is to put together a KM policy or set of policies that will underpin future activities. This is similar to the approach that organizations use to implement formal quality management systems; in fact some organizations extend the existing quality assurance (QA) or human resources (HR) policies to address KM issues. Alternatively, a stand-alone KM policy can be prepared. Both approaches are equally valid and have their own merits. The main aim of this policy stage is to:

  • Consolidate initial ideas;
  • Communicate these ideas to others in the organization;
  • Gain commitment from senior managers;
  • Prepare the ground for stage 3 and future stages.

The policy document(s) contain top-level ideas and organizational beliefs but more detail is needed for the overall strategy and approach to be viable. This is best described by the creation of a separate strategy document or business plan that can be used as a means to guide a particular project or a series of future initiatives. This publication will usually be established by a group of senior managers responsible for the initiative and will involve many detailed

discussions, meetings and workshops aimed to capture ideas from the main decision makers in the organization. The typical contents of a business plan or strategy document required to ‘kick-start’ a KM initiative or project may comprise:

  1. Executive summary; Brief, one page summary of the initiative.
  2. Introduction; Describes what the initiative is, why it is needed and why/how applying KM concepts can help the organization. KM terminology should be introduced and explained here.
  3. Business opportunity and benefits; Outlines the quantitative and qualitative benefits to be gained from the implementation.
  4. Resources; Describes what resources i.e. people, equipment, money, will be needed for the initiative.
  5. Outline implementation plan; Describes the approach, methodologies, technical solutions, team responsibilities, external assistance, timescales etc. for implementation.
  6. Risk analysis; Considers the main risks of implementation and the mitigation actions needed to address these risks.
  7. Appendices; Information required supporting where necessary.

Once available in draft form it is necessary to distribute the document to all participants involved in the process to gain as much support as possible before the KM project launch process begins.

Stage 3 — Design and launch

A successful KM implementation requires a number of prerequisites to be in place at the start of a project. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Does the project align with organizational needs?
  • Is the purpose of the project clearly defined?
  • Are the benefits understood and well communicated?
  • Is there top-level management support/commitment?
  • Is there a senior management sponsor?
  • Is a project manager assigned?
  • Are resources made available?
  • Is there sufficient ‘know how’ in the project team?
  • Is the knowledge sharing culture of the organization understood and receptive to the needs of the project?

Much of the above should have already been discussed and agreed during phase 2, however, there may have been changes or a significant delay in starting the project since phase 2 and some of these aspects may need to be revisited. A project specific plan should be developed which describes the project aims and objectives together with a timed plan of tasks and details of resource requirements. The template discussed in para 7.1.2 can be developed and used for this purpose. The project should be run as an internal change initiative requiring buy-in and support from top-level management. The exact details of the plan will vary from project to project but will need to reflect the benefits sought and the KM tools and methodologies to be used.

Many initiatives at this stage involve the concept of a pilot project, i.e. a project with limited scope used to test the tools and methodologies before a full roll out commences.

Stage 4 — Expand and support

Stage 4, ‘Expand and support’, builds on the project launch in Stage 3 and continues with the further implementation of KM in the organization. If a pilot project is adopted in Stage 3, then lessons learned from this project are important inputs to this stage. Expanding the KM capability of the organization can be done in a number of different ways, e.g.:

  • Roll out of the tools and methodologies used in Stage 3 into other, additional areas or departments of the R&D organization;
  • Extension of the KM tools and methodologies;
  • Implementation of new or additional KM tools and methodologies.

This expansion of functionality will invariably lead to the requirement for additional budget and resources. Further support from senior management will also be needed to ensure that the initiative is correctly focused and does not falter. If there are multiple KM initiatives to deliver in parallel it may be necessary to consider the adoption of a ‘programme management’ approach. This considers the cross project links between the various initiatives and addresses aspects such as interdependencies and priorities. Programme management is a topic in its own right and is outside the scope of this publication.

Stage 5 — Institutionalize knowledge management

This stage is reached when multiple KM projects have been realized after many years of effort. KM techniques and approaches become a normal part of organizational activities and can be found, for example, integrated into the QA system (see Section 8). Cultural issues that may have existed following the introduction of KM projects will have been resolved and the organization will have a positive view of KM and its benefits. To reach this stage is not the end for KM in the organization but rather the beginning as with any other process; KM becomes part of the integrated management system and needs to be maintained within the cycle of continuous improvement.

Governance and project reporting structures

Governance for a KM project relates to consistent management, implementing cohesive policies, establishing appropriate methods/tools and providing the means of empowerment for a given area of responsibility. These should be derived and communicated via the strategy documents and project plans described above in stages 2 and 3. The set up and reporting aspects for a KM project are very important and also relate to governance issues. Figure 7 shows the typical reporting structure that might apply to any kind of R&D organization looking to implement a KM project. The project sponsor is a key member of top management with decision making powers inherent in his or her main role. The IT development team and Process development team typically come from the IT Department and QA Department respectively (but this need not be the case). Process development is an important aspect as most KM projects will result in a new way of working for many employees.

FIG. 7. Typical KM project reporting structure.

The Implementation team should come from the area(s) of the organization where the project is to be implemented. This could be department, group or location based. This is a very important representative group as the project success or failure will dependent on how well the recipient group implement and derive benefit from the initiative. A Phase review team is an independent team of senior managers who scrutinize the project and ensure alignment with the R&D business. They meet on a regular basis (perhaps 3–4 times during the duration of the project). Some KM projects may also require specialist input from other departments such as Human Resources, Training, and Administration etc. It is important to select the most appropriate team structure and individuals to meet each project’s specific needs.

Avoiding common pitfalls

The following sections describe some common pitfalls that should be avoided when running a KM project. The list is not exhaustive and tries to address all types of project in all types of R&D organization.

Insufficient management commitment

Not establishing or gaining support from senior management remains the number one reason why many KM and IT projects fail to deliver their main objectives and benefits. This aspect is raised several times in this publication. Support in this context means more than just signing a policy document, it means proactively taking part in discussions and using influence to overcome objections or other problems that might affect the project outcome. When establishing a KM project it is imperative to have allies at the top level in the organization willing to fight for the cause. Without this support there is a very high likelihood of failure.

Incorrect business alignment

The implementation of KM initiatives that are not aligned to business needs will also inevitably lead to a high probability of failure. Alignment means relating KM methods and tools with the benefits that can be gained from their adoption. Figure 8 below shows how alignment might work in practice, with a clear ‘line of sight’ from the KM techniques to the benefits realized.

FIG. 8. Alignment of KM with the top level goals of the organization.

The creation of an equivalent model, tailored to the needs of the organization is a useful checkpoint for establishing correct alignment and project success.

Underestimating resource requirements

A common mistake that organizations make is to underestimate the resources needed for a successful KM implementation. The resources described here relate to the money and manpower required for effective delivery of projects. The main problem seems to relate to manpower. As KM is a people related topic, much effort is needed by:

  1. The project team to implement the KM tools/techniques;
  2. The experts in the organization who are often needed as part of the knowledge transfer process.

Although full time commitment to the project is not required throughout its duration, a significant proportion of time should be allocated and agreed with line managers before commencement. This may require some key individuals to temporarily suspend tasks or to delegate tasks to others whilst taking part in the project.

Failing to address cultural issues

Failing to address the significance of cultural issues is another area that many organizations often neglect. KM projects, by their nature, involve people sharing and collaborating with others. If the conditions are not conducive in the organization for knowledge sharing then this can be a major issue and a barrier to implementation. Understanding and changing organizational culture is a topic in its own right and beyond the scope of this publication to consider. However, many of the problems can be avoided at project inception by selecting project members and experts who already possess qualities and beliefs that promote the sharing of knowledge.

Poor communication

Failing to communicate the objectives, benefits, methodologies and other aspects of the project to all in the organization can also lead to a difficult implementation. Every opportunity

should be used to communicate using channels such as notice boards, web-sites, email, team meetings, newsletters etc. Increased leverage for the project can also be gained by communicating the aims of the project to clients, contractors and partnering organizations. As the project progresses it is also important to provide updates regarding milestones achieved and other significant accomplishments. An upbeat, positive approach works well that takes into account the other success factors in this section.

Underestimating implementation timescales

KM projects need considerable effort to establish and run. In many cases the tools and techniques will be unfamiliar and time consuming to manage. In addition to this, a new way of working may be required that takes participants longer than expected to master. These effects, combined with the resourcing issues discussed above, mean that most projects run late or behind the targeted programme. Delays invariably result in additional spend and frustration for participants. These problems should be envisaged when the project begins and adequate margins built into the programme. A key learning point is always to expect KM initiatives to take longer than might initially be expected.

Links with the quality management system

Many R&D organizations operate a certified management system to the requirements of ISO 9001 (quality) and ISO 14001 (environmental). One question that is often asked is “how does the organization integrate knowledge management strategies, processes and systems into the existing management system?” This can be achieved in a number of ways; examples of alternative strategies are given below.

Creating a standard for KM

There is currently no ISO standard for KM. One useful strategy is to ‘invent’ a standard for KM based on the ISO philosophy. On this basis a KM standard would be expected to address aspects such as:

  • Policy;
  • Objectives and targets;
  • Resources;
  • Training and awareness;
  • Communication;
  • Controls;
  • Monitoring and measurement;
  • Audits and management review.

By addressing the above requirements a systematic structure will emerge that will enable an organization’s KM activities to be readily assimilated into the existing management system.

High level integration options

ISO 9001 requires a process approach to be adopted by certified organizations. Many R&D organizations have done this for several years and have developed high-level process models that describe their core activities. A ‘drill-down’ approach is usually used to access more detail and this continues down to individual procedures and work instructions that are used by staff. One approach for KM integration into the management system involves defining KM as a core process and including this as a top-level management process. This is illustrated by Fig. 9 below.

FIG. 9. Introducing KM as a major component of the management system.

The main advantage of this approach is that KM is immediately elevated to a core business activity. As a central element of the management system, KM will receive attention, review and audit both internally and externally. This in turn will automatically lead to top-level management attention needed for success and further improvement. The main disadvantage of this approach is that there is a major implementation programme needed for effective delivery. KM processes need pre-defining and integrating into the existing system; most organizations will need to consider new processes (or formally document existing KM processes). A high level of resource will be needed for successful delivery and the organization will need to adopt a formal change management approach to ensure all staff is receptive to the new ways of working.

Integration at the working level

This approach recognizes that the organization is already carrying out KM activities as part of its normal function but not necessarily labelling these as KM. Such activities may include knowledge transfer aspects e.g. coaching, mentoring, learning from experience, training, succession planning etc. The methodology adopted recognizes these activities form part of the organization’s KM strategy but leaves them unaltered with the same ownership. The KM strategy would identify new initiatives and try to integrate these into the existing system but not at the top management level. The main advantage of this approach is with the ease of implementation. The transition from existing to new KM initiatives is less demanding on people’s time and the resources needed

for making the change are modest compared with the approach outlined in para 8.2 above. The main disadvantage of this working level approach is that KM can be seen as not core to the organization’s activities and thus receive less attention and support from senior management.

Help through the IAEA in the establishment and maturity assessment of NKM programme

In 2005, the IAEA introduced the concept of KM assist missions to help NPPs and other nuclear operating organizations understand KM and implement KM initiatives. The missions were established to support sub programme C.3 and:

  • Help organizations identify, by self-assessment, their own KM maturity levels against a set of pre-defined criteria;
  • Assist organizations formulate detailed requirements and action plans related to KM;
  • Facilitate the transfer of pragmatic KM methodologies and tools;
  • Provide specific consultancy services to address emergent problems and long term issues related to KM and associated issues;
  • Assist Member States considering implementation of nuclear power programmes to integrate KM in their management system from the very beginning.

The assist mission concept was originally geared towards NPPs but has now been extended to include other nuclear organizations, including nuclear R&D organizations. Details of the enhanced maturity model specifically designed for R&D organizations, using a self- assessment approach, can be found in Appendix of this report. Nuclear R&D organizations that want to explore the possibility of introducing the KM concepts, methodologies and tools discussed in this report should consider help from the IAEA by requesting an assist mission. The process for required to initiate this can be found in Ref. [5].

Conclusions and recommendations

This publication is written to help nuclear R&D organizations understand the main principles of NKM and for such organizations to gain benefit from the introduction of a NKM programme. It addresses the needs of different types of nuclear R&D organization and describes the process for establishing a NKM programme from first principles. The publication is not intended to be a fully comprehensive guide to NKM methodologies and techniques but instead provides a general overview of the tools and techniques that might be adopted to gain business benefit in an R&D environment. The main methodologies and tools discussed are summarized below:

  • KM analysis tools (including a maturity model intended specifically for R&D organizations);
  • Knowledge capture techniques;
  • Social interaction and knowledge sharing techniques;
  • IT tools.

Most nuclear R&D organizations already have a quality management system that underpins its operations. An important consideration is the integration of NKM practices into the quality management system. This aspect is considered and options are explored which help to provide a practical means of achieving such integration.

A roadmap for successfully delivering a NKM programme is provided that considers a five stage process for implementation. This programme is considered valid for all types of nuclear R&D organization. Finally, when considering a NKM programme, nuclear R&D organizations can seek or request IAEA assistance at any point in the implementation process. This publication provides reference material and identifies sources of information to assist organizations obtain this help.


  • [1] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Knowledge Management for Nuclear Industry Operating Organizations, IAEA-TECDOC-1510, IAEA, Vienna (2006).
  • [2] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Risk Management of Knowledge Loss in Nuclear Industry Organizations; STI/PUB/1248, IAEA, Vienna (2006).
  • [3] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Managing Nuclear Knowledge, IAEA Proceedings including CD-ROM, STI/PUB/1266, ISSN: 0074-1884, IAEA, Vienna (2006).
  • [4] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Managing Nuclear Knowledge: Strategies and Human Resource Development, Summary of an international conference, 7–10 September 2004, Saclay, France, IAEA Proceedings Series including CD-ROM, STI/PUB/1235, ISBN 92-0-110005, IAEA, Vienna (2006).
  • [5] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Planning and Execution of Knowledge Management Assist Missions For Nuclear Organizations, IAEA- TECDOC-1586, IAEA, Vienna (2008).
  • [6] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Knowledge Preservation, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, No. NG-T-6.7, IAEA, Vienna (2011).
  • [7] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Status and Trends in Nuclear Education, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, No. NG-T-6.1, IAEA, Vienna (2011).
  • [8] Wenger, E., McDermott, R., Snyder, W., M., Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide To Managing Knowledge, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, USA (2002).
  • [9] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Development of Knowledge Portals for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, No. NG-T-6.2, IAEA, Vienna (2009).

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